Kargil Vijay Diwas ( lit. Kargil Victory Day) is commemorated every 26 July in India, to observe India’s victory over Pakistan in the Kargil War for ousting Pakistani Forces from their occupied positions on the mountain tops of Northern Kargil District in Ladakh in 1999. Initially, the Pakistani army denied their involvement in the war, claiming that it was caused by Kashmiri militants forces. However documents left behind by casualties, testimony of POWs and later statements by the Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif and Pakistan Army Chief of Army Staff Pervez Musharraf showed the involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces, led by General Ashraf Rashid.
Kargil Vijay Diwas is celebrated on 26 July every year in honour of the Kargil War’s Heroes. This day is celebrated all over India and in national capital, New Delhi, where the Prime Minister of India pays homage to the soldiers at Amar Jawan Jyoti at the India Gate every year. Functions are also organized all over the country to commemorate the contributions of the Indian Armed Forces.
About Operation Vijay at Kargil War Memorial Dras.
After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, there had been a long period of relatively few direct armed conflicts involving the military forces of the two neighbours – not withstanding the efforts of both nations to control the Siachen Glacier by establishing military outposts on the surrounding mountains ridges and the resulting military skirmishes in the 1980s. During the 1990s, however, escalating tension and conflict due to separatist activities in Kashmir, as well as the conducting of nuclear tests by both countries in 1998, led to an increasingly belligerent atmosphere.
In an attempt to defuse the situation, both countries signed the Lahore Declaration in February 1999, promising to provide a peaceful and bilateral solution to the Kashmir conflict. During the winter of 1998–1999, some elements of the Pakistani Armed Forces were covertly training and sending Pakistani troops and paramilitary forces, into territory on the Indian side of the line of control (LOC). The infiltration was code named “Operation Badri”. The aim of the Pakistani incursion was to sever the link between Kashmir and Ladakh and cause Indian forces to withdraw from the Siachen Glacier, thus forcing India to negotiate a settlement of the broader Kashmir dispute. Pakistan also believed that any tension in the region would internationalize the Kashmir issue, helping it to secure a speedy resolution. Yet another goal may have been to boost the morale of the decade-long rebellion in Indian State of Kashmir by taking a proactive role.
Initially, with little knowledge of the nature or extent of the infiltration, the Indian troops in the area assumed that the infiltrators were jihadis and declared that they would evict them within a few days. Subsequent discovery of infiltration elsewhere along the LOC, along with the difference in tactics employed by the infiltrators, caused the Indian army to realize that the plan of attack was on a much bigger scale. The total area seized by the ingress is generally accepted to between 130 km2 – 200 km2. The Government of India responded with Operation Vijay, a mobilization of 200,000 Indian troops. The war came to an official end on July 26, 1999, with the eviction of Pakistan Army troops from their occupied positions, thus marking it as Kargil Vijay Diwas. 527 soldiers from the Indian Armed Forces lost their lives during the war.
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Ivory Coast Independence Day 2021 History, Significance, Flags Wallpaper and More
Ivory Coast Independence Day 2021 History, Significance, Flags Wallpaper and More : Independence Day is a public holiday in Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire) on August 7th. This is the National Day of Ivory Coast and commemorates full independence from France on this day in 1960. Celebrates Côte d’Ivoire’s independence from France on August 7th 1960. Independence Day is a public holiday in Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire) on August 7th. This is the National Day of Ivory Coast and commemorates full independence from France on this day in 1960.
History of Ivory Coast Independence Day
Before the colonial age, most European contact with this part of West Africa was for trade in elephant ivory, which is how the region got its name. In 1843, the French first established a protectorate over a few kingdoms in the region. With the so-called ‘Scramble for Africa’ at the end of the nineteenth century, Ivory Coast became a French colony in 1908. Though local resistance to the European invaders not quashed until 1915.
In 1946 with the establishment of the Fourth French Republic, Ivory Coast became an overseas territory of France. With its own parliament and representation in the French national assembly.
Significance of the Ivory Coast Independence Day
In 1958, Ivory Coast became a self-governing autonomous republic within the French Community.
Furthermore, On July 11th 1960 France agreed to Ivory Coast becoming fully independent. Ivory Coast gained its full independence on August 7th 1960, with Félix Houphouët-Boigny becoming Ivory Coast’s first president.
Côte d’Ivoire, country located on the coast of western Africa. So, The de facto capital is Abidjan; the administrative capital designate (since 1983) is Yamoussoukro.
Land and Culture of Côte d’Ivoire Country
Côte d’Ivoire bounded to the north by Mali and Burkina Faso, to the east by Ghana, to the south by the Gulf of Guinea, to the southwest by Liberia, and to the northwest by Guinea.
The country is made up of four natural regions. As well as, The coastal fringe consists of a strip of land, no more than 40 miles (64 km) wide, studded with lagoons on its eastern half. Further all, Access from the sea is made difficult by the surf and by a long submarine sandbar. Besides it, Behind the coastal fringe lies the equatorial forest zone that until a century ago formed a continuous area more than 125 miles (200 km) wide. Above all, It has now been reduced to an area roughly triangular in shape, with the apex lying a little to the north of Abidjan and with the base lying along the Liberian border.
Ivory Coast Independence Day 2021 Flags and Slogans
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Independence Day of Jamaica 2021, History, Significance, Theme, Photos, Flags Wallpaper and Whatsapp Status
Independence Day 2021 of Jamaica Celebration And History of The Day
Independence Day of Jamaica 2021, History, Significance, Theme, Photos, Flags Wallpaper and Whatsapp Status : The Colony of Jamaica acquired its freedom from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962, following over 300 years under British control. As well as Dark patriotism especially cultivated in Jamaica in the main portion of the twentieth century, the most prominent Black innovator in the nation being Marcus Garvey, a work chief and a promoter of the Back-to-Africa development, which called for everybody of African plunge to get back to the countries of their ancestors.
Significance of The Celebration Day of Jamaica Independence
Nationalist notion peaked during the British West Indian work distress of 1934–39, during which fights happened among Black and British inhabitants of the British West Indies. Further all, Following the finish of World War II, so the decolonization development started, with neighborhood lawmakers in Jamaica and in the British Empire changing their crown provinces into free states.
After Norman Manley was chosen for the post of Chief Minister in 1955, also the interaction of decolonization made much speedier, particularly with his sacred changes that he authorized that took into consideration more prominent home standard and set up the reason for a bureau of priests of clergymen under a Prime Minister of Jamaica. Above all it is so famous day of the Jamaica history.
Celebration of Jamaica Independence Day 2021 and Marching Bands
The primary festivals happen in the evening at the National Arena in Independence Park. Besides it, On Independence Day, Jamaicans participate in colossal road marches, wear clothing hued like the Jamaican banner, and put on all way of social displays.
The general occasion is named “Jamaica Festival”. The celebration was started in 1962 by the then Community Development Minister (and future Prime Minister) Edward Seaga, to feature abstract and performing specialists of the country. Consequently, The celebration incorporates rural displays, marches, peaking in an amazing function at the National Stadium.
Besides it, the following uniformed marching bands take part in the ceremonies
Jamaica Military Band
The Jamaica Regiment Band
Corps of Drums of the 1st Battalion, The Jamaica Regiment
Corps of Drums of the 3rd Battalion, The Jamaica Regiment
Jamaica Constabulary Force Band
Jamaica Combined Cadet Force Band
Independence Day of Jamaica 2021 Quotes and Sayings
Thousands laid down their lives so that our country can celebrate this day. Never forget their sacrifices. Happy Independence Day 2021!
Freedom is something that money can’t buy, it’s the result of the struggles of many Bravehearts. Let us honor them today and always. Happy Independence Day 2021!
It makes my heart beat with pride, to see the colors of Independence Day spreading happiness and great joys all around. May the glory of Independence Day be with your forever.
On this special day here’s wishing our dreams of a new tomorrow come true! May your Independence Day day be filled with patriotic spirit!
We celebrate the bravery of our fathers and their gift of freedom. Long may our flag wave! Happy 72nd Independence Day!
Remember the sacrifice of our freedom fighters that formed this country. Rejoice and celebrate this day with pride. Independence Day greetings sent specially for you and your entire family.
This Independence Day, let’s take a pledge to protect the peace and unity of our great nation. Happy Independence Day 2021!
On this special day here’s wishing our dreams of a new tomorrow come true! May your Independence Day day be filled with patriotic spirit! Happy Independence Day 2021.
By uniting we stand, by dividing we fall. Independence day is a good time to think who we are and how we got here. Happy Independence Day 2021!
Independence Day of Jamaica 2021 Flags and Wallpapers
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National Bahai Day 2022 Wishes, Quotes, Greetings
The Baháʼí Faith in Jamaica begins with a mention by ʻAbdu’l-Bahá, then head of the religion, in 1916 as Latin America being among the places Baháʼís should take the religion to. The community of the Baháʼís begins in 1942 with the arrival of Dr. Malcolm King. The first Baháʼí Local Spiritual Assembly of Jamaica, in Kingston, was elected in 1943. By 1957 the Baháʼís of Jamaica were organized under the regional National Spiritual Assembly of the Greater Antilles, and on the eve of national independence in 1962, the Jamaica Baháʼís elected their own National Spiritual Assembly in 1961. By 1981 hundreds of Baháʼís and hundreds more non-Baháʼís turned out for weekend meetings when Rúhíyyih Khánum spent six days in Jamaica.
ʻAbdu’l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, wrote a series of letters, or tablets, to the followers of the religion in the United States in 1916-1917; these letters were compiled together in the book titled Tablets of the Divine Plan. The sixth of the tablets was the first to mention Latin American regions and was written on April 8, 1916, but was delayed in being presented in the United States until 1919—after the end of the First World War and the Spanish flu. The first actions on the part of Baháʼí community towards Latin America were that of a few individuals who made trips to Mexico and South America near or before this unveiling in 1919, including Mr. and Mrs. Frankland, and Roy C. Wilhelm, and Martha Root. The sixth tablet was translated and presented by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab on April 4, 1919, and published in Star of the West magazine on December 12, 1919.
His Christ Holiness says: Travel ye to the East and to the West of the world and summon the people to the Kingdom of God.…(travel to) the Islands of the West Indies, such as Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, the Islands of the Lesser Antilles, Bahama Islands, even the small Watling Island, have great importance…
Seven Year Plan and succeeding decades
Shoghi Effendi wrote a cable on May 1, 1936 to the Baháʼí Annual Convention of the United States and Canada, and asked for the systematic implementation of ʻAbdu’l-Bahá’s vision to begin. In his cable he wrote:
Appeal to assembled delegates ponder historic appeal voiced by ʻAbdu’l-Bahá in Tablets of the Divine Plan. Urge earnest deliberation with incoming National Assembly to insure its complete fulfillment. First century of Baháʼí Era drawing to a close. Humanity entering outer fringes most perilous stage its existence. Opportunities of present hour unimaginably precious. Would to God every State within American Republic and every Republic in American continent might ere termination of this glorious century embrace the light of the Faith of Baháʼu’lláh and establish structural basis of His World Order.
Following the May 1 cable, another cable from Shoghi Effendi came on May 19 calling for permanent pioneers to be established in all the countries of Latin America. The Baháʼí National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed the Inter-America Committee to take charge of the preparations. During the 1937 Baháʼí North American Convention, Shoghi Effendi cabled advising the convention to prolong their deliberations to permit the delegates and the National Assembly to consult on a plan that would enable Baháʼís to go to Latin America as well as to include the completion of the outer structure of the Baháʼí House of Worship in Wilmette, Illinois. In 1937 the First Seven Year Plan (1937–44), which was an international plan designed by Shoghi Effendi, gave the American Baháʼís the goal of establishing the Baháʼí Faith in every country in Latin America. With the spread of American Baháʼís in Latin American, Baháʼí communities and Local Spiritual Assemblies began to form in 1938 across the rest of Latin America.
After a brief visit in 1939 by John and Rosa Shaw from San Francisco, the community of the Baháʼí Faith in Jamaica begins in 1942 with the arrival of Dr. Malcolm King – from Portland, Oregon, United States and of Jamaican background. King taught the religion to Marion Maxwell, the first Jamaican Baháʼí and William Mitchell (previously accountant for the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA) founded by Marcus Garvey). The first Baháʼí Local Spiritual Assembly of Jamaica, in Kingston, was elected in 1943. Mitchell was the Jamaican delegate to the Baháʼí All-America Convention called for by Shoghi Effendi, then head of the religion, to be held in the United States May 17–24, 1944 on the centenary of the declaration of the Báb. Mitchell in turn taught the religion to Julius Edwards, associated with Garvey and later pioneered to the area now called Ghana in 1953 and later in Liberia. There was also Eustace Whyte among the early Baháʼís of Jamaica who served as president of UNIA’s Harmony Division in Kingston as well as elected to the Local Spiritual Assembly of Kingston. Garvey scholar Robert Hill gave a eulogy at one of Whyte’s funeral services.
Jamaica parishes and towns
From the early period of development the Baháʼí community in Jamaica grew in organization and in relationship with the wider community while growing internally as well. Before national independence, the Jamaicans were part of a regional National Spiritual Assembly of the Greater Antilles from 1957 through 1961 and on the eve of national independence in 1962, the Jamaica Baháʼís elected their own National Spiritual Assembly in 1961 with Hand of the Cause Enoch Olinga representing the Baháʼí International Community. In 1963 there were Baháʼí Local Spiritual Assemblies in 6 cities: Annatto Bay, Kingston, May Pen, Port Antonio, Spanish Town, and Yallahs and smaller groups of Baháʼís in Bartons (St. Catherine), Crooked River, Montego Bay, and Porus.
In 1963 the Baháʼís of the world looked to the election of the Universal House of Justice as the new head of the religion. The electors were the members of the national assemblies then in existence. The members of the Jamaican National Assembly who participated in the election were Miss Doris Maud Buchanan, Mr. Randolph Fitz-Henley, Miss Alice Maude Gallier, Mr. Wm. Arthur Wellesley Mitchell, Mr. Alfred Senior, Miss Emily Taylor, Miss Ruby Taylor, Mr. Clarence Ullrich, Mrs. Margarite Ullrich. Later the Universal House of Justice called for eight Oceanic and Continental Conferences and one was held in Kingston for the Caribbean region in May 1971. In 1981, just before the 40th anniversary of the founding of the Baháʼí community in Jamaica, Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum traveled throughout the Caribbean region and spent six days in Jamaica. She was received by the Governor General and Prime Minister while over two hundred Baháʼís attended a weekend conference and more non-Baháʼís attended a public meeting. A twenty-minute television interview as well as general coverage by radio and television reporters highlighted her visit.
Since its inception the religion has had involvement in socio-economic development beginning by giving greater freedom to women, promulgating the promotion of female education as a priority concern, and that involvement was given practical expression by creating schools, agricultural coops, and clinics. The religion entered a new phase of activity when a message of the Universal House of Justice dated 20 October 1983 was released. Baháʼís were urged to seek out ways, compatible with the Baháʼí teachings, in which they could become involved in the social and economic development of the communities in which they lived. Worldwide in 1979 there were 129 officially recognized Baháʼí socio-economic development projects. By 1987, the number of officially recognized development projects had increased to 1482. In 1985 the Baháʼí International Community canvassed the National Assemblies with a questionnaire – 77 of the 143 then existing assemblies responded. Jamaican responses highlighted a sense that women in Jamaica were taking on leadership positions on local assemblies. Former assistant to the dean of the school of engineering and applied science at Washington University in St. Louis, Naomi McCord, and her husband served as caretakers of the National Baháʼí Center in Kingston for a number of years. McCord willed more than 200 volumes from her personal library to the center.
In a first step in relation to the general Jamaican community, the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baháʼís of Jamaica was a founding member of the Jamaican Interfaith Council in 1992.
The Baháʼís have participated in a number of activities of wider and local relevance to Jamaicans. In 2000 Baháʼís joined in observing the International Day of Peace with prayers called for by the Millennium World Peace Summit of religious leaders which met at the United Nations during August 28–31, and in 2002 Baháʼís participated in a national dialogue on transcending tribalistic boundaries present in politics. Governor General of Jamaica, Sir Howard Cooke, proclaimed a National Baháʼí Day first on July 25 in 2003 and it has been an annual event since. Among the celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the first Jamaican local spiritual assembly after two weeks of events was a blood drive organized by the Baháʼís of Kingston. The festivities were also attended by retired Continental Counselor Ruth Pringle just two weeks before her death. In 2006 the Baháʼís of Port Antonio held a 4-day exhibition at the public library on the history of the Faith in Jamaica with the Baháʼí Day observance. The Baháʼí Centre in Kingston has hosted Sir Howard Cooke’s Thursday Group which has continued to operate since Sir Cooke’s retirement in 2006. In 2008 Baháʼí Dorothy Whyte was named the new executive director at the Women’s Resource and Outreach Centre in Kingston. In 2005 the international Baháʼí choir, Voices of Bahá, performed in Jamaica as part of their first tour in the Caribbean and performed at Ward Theatre and the University’s Chapel with proceeds earmarked to two Jamaican charities serving families of policemen slain in the line of duty and the Denham Town Golden Age Home.
In 2000 local sources reported 4,000 Baháʼís in Jamaica, notably in cities like Montego Bay, Port Antonio, Ocho Rios and May Pen though recent international sources reported anywhere from 279 Baháʼís to more than 8,000. The Association of Religion Data Archives (relying on World Christian Encyclopedia) estimated some 5137 Baháʼís in 2005. In 2006 there were 21 local spiritual assemblies. In 2008, Baháʼí community events are listed especially in Montego Bay, Morant Bay, Port Morant, and the Kingston/St. Andrew Parish area.
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